ГлавнаяENAquatic Bioresources & Environment. Volume 1, Number 3 - 4, 2018

Aquatic Bioresources & Environment. Volume 1, Number 3 - 4, 2018


Review Articles

Methodological support of  pollution monitoring  of the Azov and Black Seas water bodies.
Barabashin T.O., Korablina I.V., Pavlenko L.F., Skrypnik G.V.,  Korotkova L.I.

Abstract. The problems of pollution monitoring of the aquatic ecosystem components (water, bottom sediments, hydrobionts), associated with the complex composition of the identified toxicants and the presence of numerous interfering substances, are discussed. The article describes the issues and solutions in the process of determining the priority pollutants, which, according to the criteria of environmental hazard (toxicity, genotox icity, сarcinogenicity, prevalence, frequency of occurrence), include petroleum products (hydrocarbons and resins), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls, heavy metals and arsenic, phenols and synthetic surfactants. To determine the toxicants, the optimal conditions for their isolation from water, sediments, organs and tissues of commercial fish and benthic organisms are elaborated, as well as for elimination of the factors that interfere with such determination. Evaluation of the amount of identified substances  is carried out by highly informative analytical methods: high-performance liquid and gas chromatography, thin- layer chromatography, chromatography mass spectrometry, infrared and ultraviolet-visible spectrometr y, luminescence spectroscopy, spectrometry in the visible region of the spectrum, atomic absorption and x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Methods of determination of all the controlled substances are standardized, certified and included in the State Register of methods for quantitative chemical analysis and assessment of the state of environment components, approved for  the state environmental control and monitoring.
Keyword: marine ecosystems,  environmental monitoring, marine pollution,  priority substances, methodology.


Environmental Concerns and the State of the Aquatic Environment

Main research results of  climatic changes in the  surface atmospheric pressure field in the Azov and Black Seas  Region (1960–2017).
Spiridonova E.O., Panov B.N.

Abstract. The main features of the surface atmospheric pressure field structure in the Azov and Black Seas Region were assessed based on the daily fields for the period from 1960 to 2017. In  the long-term variability of the average pressure value, for the investigated fields three periods were identified with relatively low and high values. The lower background of the pressure during the period from 1960 to 1971 was caused by weakening of the influence of the Azores High and increased activity of the Asiatic Low. Higher pressure during the period of 1982–1994 was  associated  with  intensification  of  the Azores High  and  weakenin g  of  the  in fluen ce of the Mediterranean cyclones. The period of lower pressure in 2001–2014 is characterized by weakening of the influence of the Asiatic Low, Siberian and Azores High, as well as the increased activity of the Mediterranean cyclones.
Keywords: Azov Sea, Black Sea, atmospheric pressure, field structure, long-term changes, atmospheric action centers,  regional features.


Role of the Don River  flow in productivity formation of the Taganrog Bay.
Kosenko Yu.V.,  Baskakova T.E., Kartamysheva Т.B.

Abstract. Analysis of the features of the Lower Don R. (Rostov-on-Don Region, Russia) hydrochemical regime  in conditions of different water content and the impact of the Don R. flow on productivity of the Taganrog Bay (Azov Sea) is conducted. The grid of stations covered the mouths of large rivers (Sal R., Manych R., Aksai R.), wastewater discharge areas of Rostov-on-Don and Aksai, and the area of the Don R.  influx into the Taganrog Bay. The studies were carried out from 1999 to 2015 in the spring, summer and autumn seasons. It is shown that the average annual flow volume of the Don R. correlates with the concentrations of ammonium and nitr ate nitrogen in water. In low-water years, the concentration of nutrients has no pronounced seasonal dyn amics. In low-water and medium-water years, the dominant form of nitrogen in the water of the Don R. was nitrate nitrogen. The increase of the organic component of nitrogen-containing compounds in water during the low-water  period is indicative of intensive production of organic matter by phytoplankton, which is evidenced by the high trophicity level of the water area. Pollution by mineral forms of nitrogen in the lower reach of the Don R. in the area of sewage water discharge from large cities is not detected. The level of primary production of organic matter in the Taganrog Bay is maintained due to the autochthonous supply of nutrients during the period of decrease in the average annual flow of the Don R. In the absence of nutrient recycling during the suffocation periods in the Taganrog Bay, a decrease in the level of primary production was reported in conditions of the low water content  of the Don R.
Keywords: Don, Taganrog Bay, low-water period, medium-water period, biogenic substances, primary production, trophicity.

On the possibility of long-term forecast of the Azov Sea  water salinity,  using regional  atmospheric circulation indices.
Spiridonova E.O., Panov B.N., Zhukova S.V. 

Abstract. The results of multiple regression analysis of the series of the Azov Sea average salinity (excluding  the Taganrog Bay) and indices of  surface atmospheric  circulation  in  the Azov and Black  Seas Region  for  the period from 1960 to 2016 are considered. It is shown that a small role in the change of salinity is played by zonal atmospheric transfer synchronously and for a year ahead. More significant influence is exerted by atmospheric processes, the indicator of which is the average atmospheric pressure with prediction of 6–15 years. However, since 1990, zonal transfers, occurring 10–12 years before the period under consideration with the effect on salinity, opposite to the one identified in the case of synchronous influence, become a more effective factor. Statistically significant regression equations are obtained, which allows to predict the Azov Sea salinity with a forecast  interval of 6–10 years.
Keywords: Azov Sea,  water  salinity,  atmospheric circulation, forecast.

Biology and Ecology of Aquatic  Organisms

Response of algal diversity to physicochemical parameters  of polluted waters in spring low water season in District Charsadda, Pakistan.
Ali L., Shah S.Z., Mursaleen, Khuram I., Ahmad N., Barinova S.S.

Abstract. The first investigation of the algal communities from the Jindi River revealed 93 algal species from  five taxonomic divisions, identified in 90 samples collected at three sites of the river during the low water  season in March–May of 2016. The total species richness increased from the upper sites of Shabqadar (45 species) and Tangi (51) to the lower site of Charsadda (59). Environmental conditions fluctuated insignificantly. The water in the studied water body was estimated as fresh, low saline, mid alkaline with pH increasing to the lower site of Charsadda up to 9.8. The programs CANOCO and Statistica 12.0 as well as Pearson correlation coefficients  were applied, revealing two major parameters (ammonia and dissolved oxygen) as factors, influencing algal diversity. The river water was characterized as moderately polluted with increasing of transparency and algal diversity downstream that allows to conclude that the ecosystem of the Jindi R. has high self-purification ability with revealed algal  community.
Keywords: aquatic communities,  algae, water, physical parameters,  chemical parameters, Pakistan.


A simple method for  preparing permanent  diatom slides and assessing the abundance of  microalgae for bioindication.
Barinova S.S.

Abstract. Problems that arise when assessing the abundance of microalgae and ways to solve them are considered. Information on quantification systems for algae cells is given. Based on the experience gained, a summary table was compiled for recalculating the number  of cells in algal communities from one system to another. In  order to unify quantitative estimates, arguments are presented in favor of sharing quantitative cell counts in both temporary (raw) preparations from a sample of the collected community, including an assessment of the abundance of each species of non-diatomic algae, and in permanent slides of diatoms from the same sample. A detailed description of a simple peroxide method of preparing permanent diatom slides is given so that the estimates of the abundance of cells in the raw and permanent slides can be used in a unified scale. Various scales for assessing the abundance of algae cells are presented as an approach for unifying the results of calculations suitable for bioindication in  the entire community, including non-diatomic and diatom algae. The approach and method can be used by algologists, ecologists, decision-makers who have access to materials from past years of monitoring in water bodies.
Keywords: algae,  abundance, quantitative methods, permanent  slides, methodology.

Phytoplankton in  the limans  of the Kulikov-Kurchansky group (limans  of the Azov Region).
Rudakova N.A., Vishnevsky S.L., Petrashov V.I., Matveeva E.I.

Abstract. Brief analysis of the knowledge level on phytoplankton community of the limans of the Azov Region by various researchers is given for several decades. The data on seasonal diversity of taxonomic composition of the microalgae, identified in the limans of the Kulikov-Kurchansky group, are presented for 2015, wh en 244 algae species, belonging to seven taxonomic divisions, were recorded. The highest number of species (100) was represented by the green algae division; 79 species of diatoms were also recorded, as well as 29 species of cyanophytae, and 24 species of euglenoids. Other taxonomic groups of algae were less representative and were registered only sporadically: 9 species of dinoflagellates and cryptomonads, 3 species of ochrophyta. The estimate of  seasonal  variability of  species  and numerical  composition  of  phytoplankton  community of  the liman s  is presented. In 2015, average annual abundance of the phytoplankton in the limans of the Kulikov-Kurchansky group was 8,580.5 million cells/m 3 (with fluctuation s from 12,425.6 million cells/m 3  in  spr in g  to 4,177.9 million cells/m3 in autumn). Phytoplankton biomass in the studied area equaled 2,923.6 mg/m3 on average (with fluctuations from 4,285.06 mg/m3 in spring to 1,764.70 mg/m3 in autumn). High phytoplankton concentrations, which remained in the limans during the whole season, were essential to form primary production, which level in the recent years was to a large extent related to high water temperatures, especially in the water bodies with small surface area, shallow depths and limited water exchange. Taxonomic diversity of microalgae community is an important parameter in assessment of environmental state of the water bodies, because its seasonal variability determines the phytocoenosis reaction  to the changes in  the environmental quality.
Keywords: Kulikov-Kurchansky group of limans, phytoplankton, species composition, abundance, biomass, seasonal variability.


Aquaculture  and Methods  of Artificial Reproduction

Technologies  for  artificial reproduction of the Azov-Black Sea shemaya Alburnus leobergi.
Golovko G.V.,  Karpenko G.I., Zipelt L.I.

Abstract. Analysis of reproduction techniques for the Azov-Black Sea shemaya Alburnus leobergi from the simplest, developed in 1929, to the present ones, which control all the life cycle stages, is carried out. The first technology in  use  involved  a  minimum number  of life cycle  stages  of the cultured species:  capture of mature breeders on their spawning grounds during their spawning season, obtaining of reproductive products, egg incubation on besoms, wicker baskets and Seth Green incubators in the river environment, and release of embryos and larvae in rivers. Modern technologies of shemaya reproduction involve control over all the life cycle stages, from collection of breeders during autumn and spring anadromous migrations, through their domestication, obtainment of eggs with or without hormonal stimulation, incubation of eggs and retaining of embryos, rearing of juveniles and their release into a natural water body, and down to composition of industrial broodstocks and commercial rearing. All technologies for shemaya reproduction are described with regard to their differences between  each  other, reproduction techniques standards and their efficiency.
Keywords: Azov-Black Sea shemaya, Alburnus leobergi, reproduction techniques, life cycle, artificial reproduction, standards.

Effect of salinity on the reproduction efficiency of pike perch and roach in the Kurchansky Liman (Temryuk District,  Krasnodar Krai).
Poroshina E.A., Popova T.M., Bezrukavaya E.A.

Abstract. Since 2017, the period of salinization of the Azov Sea has significantly affected the life processes of the fish in the Azov brackish lagoons. Results of observations in the Kurchansky Liman (Temryuk District, Krasnodar Krai) are presented, which allow to evaluate the role of salinity in formation of the current reproduction level  of semi-migratory pike perch  and roach  in  the investigated reproductive  water  body.  The  studies  were carried out during spring season of 2017 and 2018. Ichthyological data were collected at 32 stations. Altogether, during the 2-year studies, 64 fishing operations were performed in the brackish lagoons of Temryuk District, and 101 specimens of pike perch juveniles and 1,900 specimens of roach juveniles were analyzed. It is sh own how  the abundance of pike perch and roach juveniles in the catches changes depending on the changes in the water salinity of the investigated water body, as compared to the other brackish lagoons in this region, where salinity is lower. On the basis of the obtained material and literature data, it is stated that the spawning grounds of pike perch and roach in Krasnodar Krai depend mostly on the level of salinity, which regulates the reproductive efficiency  of  these species.
Keywords: Azov brackish lagoons, salinity, chlorinity, pike perch, roach, fish catch, environmental conditions, reproductive  efficiency, reproduction.

Experience on domestication of the crayfish Pontastacus  cubanicus in the aquarium-type setup of FSBSI “AzNIIRKH”.
Bondarenko N.V., Gorbenko E.V., Pavlyuk A.A., Poluvyanov P.N., Stepanova A.N.

Abstract. For a long time, indigenous commercial species of Ponto-Caspian origin (broad-clawed crayfish, narrow-clawed crayfish and Kuban crayfish) have been annually supplied from Russia to the Western Europe markets where they are highly valued for their nutritional qualities. Currently, based on the aquarium complex of the Azov Sea Research Fisheries Institute (AzNIIRKH), research works with the possibility of application have been initiated on the development of technology for the production of freshwater crayfish under controlled conditions. For this purpose, freshwater crayfish breeders from the natural environment were kept in tanks equipped with a closed water circulation system. In the experiment, sexually mature males and females caught in the shallow channel Cherepashiy (Turtle) were used, and the channel itself was the source of water supply for the farm “Vzmorye”. The experience on adapting freshwater crayfish to the industrial conditions of the aquarium complex on the basis of AzNIIRKH has shown that the domestication of narrow-clawed crayfish breeders in the tanks occurred on the 39th day, and the breeders began to consume artificial feed. Adaptation of the wild narrow- clawed Kuban crayfish to artificial conditions of the hatchery has shown the possibility of using fiberglass aquaculture tanks for these purposes. Positive results of one-year's experiments allow to plan the studies for the future with  the aim to form a  crayfish broodstock.
Keywords: Kuban crayfish, Pontastacus cubanicus, fiberglass aquaculture tanks, adaptation, molting, hydrochemical indices.


Fisheries and Processing of Aquatic Bioresources

Abstract. Studies have been carried out to identify potential fishery species in two internal water bodies of Stavropol Krai, Russia (Bolshoe Medvezhenskoe and Maloe Medvezhenskoe reservoirs), and to determine taxonomic and quantitative composition of the commercial aquatic organisms. Representatives of zooplankton communities in the investigated water bodies are cladocera, copepods, crustaceans and rotifers. In terms of abundance and biomass, Diaptomus salinus, which is a potentially commercial species, occupies the leading position in those two water bodies. Diptera larvae of the family Chironomidae (non-biting midges) ar e of the highest abundance and biomass in the benthos. High abundance and biomass values of D. salinus and peculiarities of their age structure in the studied water bodies indicate a significant level of reproductive potential of the population and the ability of copepods to recover quickly after harvesting. The commercial stocks of both Bolshoe Medvezhenskoe and Maloe Medvezhenskoe were estimated as 3,450 kg and 7,478 kg. Without any negative effects, it is possible to withdraw not less than 40 % of the stock that makes up 1.4 t and 3.0 t, r espectively. Taking into account the number and biomass of plankton crustaceans and the reproduction efficiency of their populations in both water bodies, the commercial fishery will not cause any additional damage to the stocks of the aquatic biological resources but enable the increase of the legalization  level of catches and reduce the level  of unreported fishing.
Keywords: salt water reservoirs, zooplankton, zoobenthos, abundance, biomass, habitat, commercial invertebrates, stock assessment,  recommended yield (catch)  volume.


Conservation and  Rehabilitation of Aquatic Ecosystems

Efficiency of macrophyte overgrowth management in the cooling pond of the Rostov Nuclear Power  Plant by means of stocking it with grass  carp Ctenоpharyngоdоn idella (Valenciennes, 1844).
Strelchenko O.V.

Abstract. Since 2002,  the cooling pond of the Rostov Nuclear Power  Plant is stocked with  grass carp acting as  a mean to manage macrophyte overgrowth. Simultaneously, environmental monitoring of this water body was being carried out. The purpose of this research work was to perform the analysis of effectiveness of the undertaken measures. In the present work, the volumes of stocking this water body with grass carp were considered, as well as the dynamics of macrophyte biomass. Drastic reduction of the macrophyte biomass during the first years of bioreclamation works was recorded. In the subsequent years, the dynamic pattern of changes in macrophyte biomass was more moderate, but the tendency for the decrease remained. Since 2014, macrophyte biomass is maintained at the optimal low level. The pond area, covered with macrophytes, was around 14 % in recent years. In general, according to the results of the research that has been conducted, the bioreclamation  measures showed a  high degree of efficiency.
Keywords: Rostov Region, grass carp, Ctenоpharyngоdоn idella, cooling pond, nuclear power plant, macrophytes, biomass, stocking,  biological reclamation.


Informational Messages

Professor Evgeniy Grigorievich Boyko.
Boyko N.E., Makarov E.V. 

Abstract. Professor Evgeniy Boyko (1905–1985) is an outstanding researcher of the Azov Sea Basin bioresources. The main direction of his research work was to discover the fluctuation causes for the main commercial fish stocks. Professor Boyko is the creator of the biostatistical method, which made possible for the fishing industry to achieve high forecast accuracy. Application of this method allowed for assessment of absolute stock size and abundance of individual generations, as wells as for evaluation of fishing intensity and commercial return (yield potential), with high degree of efficiency. It also made possible to identify the factors, predetermining reproductive efficiency. There are both theoretical and methodological studies among the works of Professor Boyko; they consider  the problem  of the dynamics of commercial fish abundance and other subject matters, and some studies formed the basis for the General Schemes of Aquatic Resources  Exploitation  and were related to the issues of fish stocks reproduction. All his work was characterized by elaboration, meticulousness and high scientific value, which resulted from long-term research studies, performed both by Professor Boyko himself and by researchers under  his supervision.
Keywords: Evgeniy Boyko, Azov Sea,  commercial fish, population  dynamics, fishing forecast,  reproduction.