ГлавнаяENAquatic Bioresources & Environment. Volume 3, Number 2, 2020

Aquatic Bioresources & Environment. Volume 3, Number 2, 2020



 

Review Articles


Environmental Concerns and the State of Aquatic Environment


On the need to develop regional databases for the bioindicators of the state of water bodies.
Barinova S.S.
Abstract. This review article discusses the problems associated with the implementation of bioindication methods for continental and marine water bodies at a regional scale, and ways to solve them. The possibilities of environmental assessment opening up with the expansion of the application of bioindication methods are described. Methods that enable a broader interpretation of the obtained bioindication data in environmental assessments, such as visualization, are considered. References to works describing updated methods of environmental mapping of data based on environmental indicators, biota, and bioindication results in the area of both lentic and lotic water bodies, including the water catchment area, are given. A table of the available data on the indicators of water properties by algae, cyanobacteria, bryophytes, fern-like and higher aquatic plants, which habitat is confined to continental water bodies, is presented. References to the sources that contain lists of algae indicator organisms for 12 environmental parameters are given, as well as examples of their application in bioindication at water bodies of various types. It is emphasized that it is important that indicators of the second and third trophic levels, especially aquatic invertebrates, which have regional distribution specific features, are included in the regional lists. Statistical software programs that offer the possibility to optimize working with lists of indicators and their quantitative data in communities are presented. It is concluded that there exists the need to create regional databases on indicator taxa of various trophic levels.
Keywords: bioindication, environmental assessment, database


Biology and Ecology of Aquatic Organisms



Correlation analysis of pelagic fish stocks and biomass of ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi A. Agassiz, 1865 in the Azov Sea
Afanasyev D.F., Kulba S.N., Shlyakhov V.A., Belousov V.N.
Abstract.
Comparison of estimates of pelagic fish stocks (the European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus, 1758) and the Black Sea sprat Clupeonella cultriventris (Nordmann, 1840)) and the biomass of ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi (A. Agassiz, 1865), based on lampara net and plankton surveys in the Azov Sea in the summer seasons of 1989–2018, has been carried out. An attempt was made to investigate, to what degree Mnemiopsis is able to limit the development of anchovy and sprat in terms of their abundance, as well as whether the stocks of anchovy and sprat play a significant role in the formation of the biomass of Mnemiopsis in the Azov Sea, and in case they do, how significant this role is. To assess the influence of the Mnemiopsis development level on the stocks of the European anchovy and the Black Sea sprat, the data on the maximum summer biomass of ctenophore in the Azov Sea were compared with the stocks of these fish species, estimated based on the lampara surveys conducted in August by the cross-correlation method. To assess the influence of anchovy and sprat on the development of Mnemiopsis, the data on their stocks, collected during the assessment surveys conducted in June, were compared with the maximum biomass of ctenophores in the Azov Sea, recorded in the same years in July– August. Correlation analysis has shown that the biomass of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis negatively correlates with the European anchovy stock with a shift of +2 years. No reliable correlation between the biomass of Mnemiopsis and the Black Sea sprat stock in the Azov Sea has been revealed. The total stocks of pelagic fish species in the Azov Sea at the beginning of summer and the ctenophore biomass that forms in the following months are characterized by a weak negative correlation.
Keywords: ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, pelagic fish species, European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus, Black Sea sprat Clupeonella cultriventris, Azov Sea, trophic relationships, correlation analysis 

Estimation of the parameters of sexual maturity in hydrobionts in the absence of visible maturity indicators in a  part of mature individuals
Mikhaylyuk A.N., Piatinskii M.M.
Abstract. The problem of estimation of the true value of the length at which 50 % of fish or crustacean individuals are sexually mature is considered for the case when maturity indicators are absent in a part of mature individuals. As a means to solve this problem, it is proposed to use three-parameter models similar to traditionally used two- parameter ones, defined by a logistic function or the normal probability integral. In this case, the third parameter is the estimation of the fraction of mature individuals that present discernible maturity indicators. Based on the data from literature sources, it is shown that, in such cases, the three-parameter logistic model in the add-on package drc for the open-source environment R can be used. As the input data for the estimation, the published data on female individuals of such species of aquatic living organisms as tiger prawn  Penaeus semisulcatus  (De Haan, 1844) and wide-eyed flounder Bothus podas (Delaroche, 1809) have been used. In some cases, in order to compare the results, the estimation has also been done using the conventional method, involving linear approximation of the logistic function with application of the software package SPSS. It was concluded that, when the parameter defining the upper asymptote deviates from 1 in a statistically significant manner, it is expedient to use the aforementioned three-parameter model. However, when this parameter does not deviate from 1 in such a way, it is advisable to use the two-parameter model, defining this parameter as a fixed value equal to 1.
Keywords: fish, crustaceans, sexual maturity, body size, skipped spawning, body length

Characterization of the functional state of so-iuy mullet Planiliza haematocheila (Temminck &  Schlegel,  1845) in the Azov  Sea at the end of the wintering period
Sergeeva S.G., Bugaev L.A., Voikina A.V., Lezgovka N.A., Tsybulskaya M.A.
Abstract. The physiological state of a sample of so-iuy mullet Planiliza haematocheila (Temminck & Schlegel, 1845) from the Azov Sea at the end of its wintering period is analyzed. The state of females and males was assessed by the content of total protein, moisture and lipids in the muscles, liver and gonads, by protein content, including albumin and globulins, cholesterol, triglycerides in the blood serum, and by the characteristics of the variation series of oocyte diameters in females. The reduced content of protein and fat in the muscles and liver, fat in the gonads of females, and carotenoids in the liver and gonads is noted in comparison with the long-term data characteristic for the early spring period. The content of protein, cholesterol and triglycerides in blood serum was also reduced. Values of protein coefficient (albumin-to-globulin ratio) did not exceed 0.73, which is not typical for this blood serum parameter (normally above 1.0). The dynamics of the investigated biochemical parameters of blood indicated an insufficiently active transport of nutrients, in particular albumin and triglycerides, to the organs and tissues. The females had gonads of the 3rd maturity stage; diameter of the oocytes reached 0.25–0.35 mm, and larger oocytes have not been recorded in the majority of the investigated fish individuals, which suggests a lower degree of gonadal maturity during this period. Satisfactory physiological state of the so-iuy mullet at the end of its wintering is associated with a significant decrease in temperature in early November 2018, which led to a decrease in the duration of autumn feeding and to an earlier onset of the  wintering period.
Keywords: Planiliza haematocheila, physiological state, maturity stage, total protein, moisture, total lipids, carotenoids, albumin, cholesterol, triglycerides, oocyte diameter.
 

Ichthyofauna of Marine and Inland Water Bodies



On the significance and role of accidental introduction of the invader species Northern snakehead (Channa argus Cantor, 1842) in the ichthyofauna composition of the  Balkhash-Ili Basin
Ismukhanov Kh.K., Kassymbekov Ye.B., Pazylbekov M.Zh.
Abstract. An alien species Nothern snakehead (Channa argus Cantor, 1842) from the water bodies of the People's Republic of China and Republic of Korea was accidentally introduced, along with the larvae of herbivorous fish species, into the basins of the Syr Darya River and the Aral Sea in the 1960s; afterwards it spread to numerous water bodies in South Kazakhstan. Subsequently, in 2003, a certain number of the Northern snakehead juveniles was brought into one of the ponds near Almaty, and from there, through the canal network and the Kaskelenka River, it entered the Qapshaghay Reservoir of the Balkhash-Ili Basin. This article discusses the issues of adaptation and the propagation process of the invader in its new living conditions, as well as its biological characteristics and nutrition. Due to the differences in habitat stations and methods of obtaining food, there is a lack of food competition between the new invader and other predatory fish. Following the results of the analysis, the Northern snakehead is found to play a positive role in utilization of the food supply of carnivorous species, which comprises abundant non-commercial fish species of the Chinese complex that compete with juveniles of all commercial fish species in the water bodies for food. Based on the above differences in the habitat and nutrition stations, it  is predicted that with the completion of naturalization process, the abundance and fishing stocks of the Northern snakehead will be significantly lower than these of three predatory fish species (zander, asp and catfish) previously acclimatized in the investigated water bodies. The volumes of commercial snakehead catch in the recent years, which range from 4.9 to 5.3 % of the total fish catch, are shown.
Keywords: Balkhash-Ili Basin, Channa argus, invader species, naturalization, geographical distribution, forecast, fishing catches.
 

Fisheries and Processing of Aquatic Bioresources



Influence of amateur and recreational fishing on the state of the aquatic  biological resources  in the Tsimlyansk Reservoir 
Kutsenko N.V., Chukhnin V.A., Naumenko A.N., Filipenko A.A.
Abstract. Amateur fishing with recreational purposes is one of the most popular types of recreation for the population at the inland freshwater bodies of our country, and the development of recreational fishing is one of the important tasks, which fishing industry currently faces. At the same time, uncontrolled fishing or harvesting of aquatic biological resources by amateur fishers can lead to extremely negative consequences for the their exploited stocks and for the ecological state of the water body. This paper presents the results of studies on the impact of amateur and recreational fishing on aquatic biological resources of the Tsimlyansk Reservoir within the boundaries of the Volgograd Region carried out in 2019. Based on visual observations and direct survey, the number of amateur fishermen who visited the Tsimlyansk Reservoir during the entire period of observation has been assessed. According to the estimated data, the amateur fishermen's total catch, as well as the average catch per a fisherman have been determined. The most visited sites where the highest density of amateur fishers was observed have been identified; the main targets of amateur and recreational fishing have been determined, and their main biological characteristics such as size and body weight have been investigated; catch intensity in relation to the species of aquatic biological organisms has been determined by calculation methods; the annual yield of aquatic biological resources by species has been estimated. In total, the analysis of 7774 fish specimens has been performed in the course of the work. In the catches of amateur fishermen, 17 species of fish have been recorded, namely: zander, Volga zander, Northern pike, silver bream, asp, Prussian carp, common bream, European perch, roach, European carp, blue bream (zope), wels catfish, ide, goby, white-eye bream, common rudd, and common bleak. It has been found that 39.6 % of zander, 90.8 % of common bream, 89.5 % of European carp, 57.7 % of wels catfish and 75 % of ide individuals out of the total number of examined specimens of the corresponding species were smaller than the minimum landing size allowed by the Fisheries Regulations for amateur fishing. Based on the analysis of the collected data, an assessment of the extent of the impact that amateur and recreational fishing exerts on the aquatic biological resources in the Tsimlyansk Reservoir has been made. Thus, the catch of amateur fishermen in 2019 in the Tsimlyansk Reservoir within the boundaries of the Volgograd Region is estimated at 104.3 tons, 51.3 tons of which are accounted for by such a valuable commercial species as zander.
Keywords: Tsimlyansk Reservoir, recreational fishing, amateur fishing, fisheries regulations
 

Informational Messages



Employees of the Volgograd Branch of “VNIRO”, who merit eternal memory and respect for their actions in the Great Patriotic War.
Khoruzhaya V.V., Kochetkova A.I., Kashirina A.A., Abashkin V.M.
Abstract.
This article was prepared in honor of the 75th anniversary of the Victory in the Great Patriotic War. The Volgograd Branch of “VNIRO” is located in the Hero City, well-known by every person on our planet, Volgograd  (formerly Stalingrad). It was in the city of Stalingrad when a turning point in the Great Patriotic War, in which the Soviet troops won and seized the strategic initiative over the Wehrmacht, happened on February 2, 1943. Due to the significance of the Battle of Stalingrad in the Great Patriotic War, a comprehensive analysis of the biographical data of the Volgograd Branch employees, who were involved in the military operations, was carried out. It is based on the archive materials of the Volgograd Branch of “VNIRO”, which are presented in the form of personal files of the employees and the results of their research activity (scientific publications, reports, etc.).
Keywords: Volgograd Branch of “VNIRO”, fishery institutions, biographies, Great Patriotic War


Analytical testing center of AzNIIRKH celebrates its 25th Anniversary!
Pavlenko L.F., Barabashin  T.O.
Abstract. This article describes the history of the creation and development of the Analytical Testing Center, created on the basis of the Azov Sea Research Fisheries Institute. The founder and first Head of the Analytical Testing Center was Anatoliy Dmitrievich Semenov, Doctor of Chemistry, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences. For 25 years of the Center's operation, the Center has been providing extensive technical and methodological support for assessing the quality of the habitat of aquatic biological resources. Since the end of the last century, the Analytical Testing Center has developed, improved and certified more than 100 methods of quantitative chemical analysis for detection of the following chemical elements and compounds in the main components of aquatic ecosystems (water, sediments and hydrobionts): heavy metals and arsenic, chlorine and phosphorus-containing pesticides, chlorophenols, and the major petroleum components—hydrocarbons and resinous substances, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, paraffinic hydrocarbons, congeners of polychlorobiphenyls, including dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls, phenols, anionic and non-ionic synthetic surfactants. The Center's work to date has been reflected in the published practical guide to the chemical analysis of water, sediments and hydrobionts for the content of priority toxicants. The scope of accreditation of the Analytical Center covers monitoring of the state of aquatic environment, bottom sediments and hydrobionts of the water bodies of the Azov and Black Sea Basin in order to assess the anthropogenic impact on the habitat of aquatic biological resources, including assessments performed upon the request of third-party organizations.
Keywords: Analytical Testing Center, AzNIIRKH, anniversary



To the 70th anniversary of Vladislav Shlyakhov, an esteemed  figure in the Soviet  and Russian fisheries science
Kukharev N.N., Kulakova E.O.
Abstract. This article is dedicated to V.A. Shlyakhov, one of the most esteemed researchers in AzCherNIRO (renamed YugNIRO in 1988, currently operating as the Azov-Black Sea Branch of the FSBSI “VNIRO”). Vladislav Alexeevich started his employment in the institute in 1973, immediately following his graduation from the Astrakhan Technical Institute of Fishing Industry and Economy. From 1973 to 2017, he worked his way up from a senior laboratory assistant to the Head of Department of Fish Resources of the Azov-Black Sea Basin and World Ocean of YugNIRO; since 2020, he has been holding the position of the Head of the Laboratory of Aquatic Bioresources, Head of the Group for Mathematical Modeling and Forecasts. V.A. Shlyakhov's scientific and work-related interests cover investigation of the stocks of aquatic living resources in the Black and Azov Seas, substantiation of their rational exploitation, and development of the methods for stock assessment of commercial fish species and for estimation of their allowable catch. In the mid-1970s, he initiated targeted research into biology and stocks of whiting Merlangius merlangus (Linnaeus, 1758), which applied the methods of mathematical modeling for the first time. In 1986, his scientific recommendations commenced the Soviet fishing operations targeting whiting in the Black Sea. Vladislav Alexeevich defended a Candidate's Thesis “State of stocks and fishing prospects of whiting in the Black Sea”. For his input into the development of raw material resources of the basin, he earned a state award, i. e. the Medal “For Distinguished Labour”, in 1986. In 1987, he was appointed as the Head of the Laboratory of Fish Resources of the Black Sea, the main raw material department of the institute. Vladislav Alexeevich was in charge of the Laboratory during the period of the highest increase in the catches extracted from the Black and Azov Seas, and of the highest number of research vessels operating in the local basin (more than 20). By virtue of his demanding but successful work in this capacity, V.A. Shlyakhov gained prominence and credibility in his native country and abroad. In the course of his research into a drastic decrease of the stocks of abundant fish species in the Black Sea and a decline of their catches resulted from the invasion of ctenophore species, in the early 1990s, he took part in the development of the programs addressing the ctenophore and its effect on the biota. His works were and remain to be of utmost importance in the context of international cooperation and collaboration. During the “Ukrainian” period (1991–2014), under the new circumstances, unfavourable for conducting research — very poor and sporadic funding, among other things, — Vladislav's knowledge and experience were of high demand and gained a new impetus. He participated in creation of regulatory framework for the fisheries of a new country, Ukraine, and in development of the scientific basis for fisheries management; he also ensured that his department got its due funding, and promoted Ukrainian membership in international commissions and organizations. He was also responsible for formulation of crucial regulatory documents in the field, namely, the forecasts of stock abundance and allowable catches. In the first half of the 1990s, V.A. Shlyakhov, in conjunction with his colleagues from the Black Sea riparian countries, investigated the drastic reduction of the mass fish species in the Black Sea and catch decrease caused by the impact of the invasion of ctenophore Mnemiopsis and the anchovy overfishing. He was also involved in a number of the international working groups and projects, and as an expert participated in the Russian-Ukrainian Commission and other commissions concerned with the fisheries matters. The share of his foreign publications increased significantly. On March 18, 2014, Crimea became Russian territory, which led to the reconstitution of YugNIRO. Following the restructuring of Russian fisheries science, the institute was merged with the FSBSI “AzNIIRKH” and later on with the FSBSI “VNIRO”. Against the background of those events, Vladislav Alexeevich successfully balanced his duties in charge of the Black Sea division with the studies widely incorporating mathematical methods and models. His publications of 2014–2019 were of instructive nature and mostly characterized by summation of the preceding works. Today, Vladislav Alexeevich is an author and co-author of 130 scientific publications, including 4 monographs. His works have been and still remain much in demand within the international cooperation. His academic record is an essential part of the extensive joint history of Soviet, Ukrainian, and Russian research into aquatic living resources of the Azov and Black Sea Basin. At present, Vladislav Alexeevich, as a researcher dealing with the fisheries biology and stocks of the Black Sea fish species, is considered to be among the most reputable scientists.
Keywords: Azov and Black Sea Fishery Basin, yield, stock assessment, forecasts, methods, Merlangius merlangus, anchovy, sprat, mathematical modeling, aquatic living resources
was also involved in a number



Book Abstract “They expedited the Victory. Science and fisheries of Southern Russia during the Great Patriotic War”
In May, 2020, the Azov-Black Sea Branch of the FSBSI “VNIRO” (“AzNIIRKH”) published the book of historical materials, dedicated to the 75th anniversary of the Victory in the Great Patriotic War, entitled “They expedited the Victory. Science and fisheries of Southern Russia during the Great Patriotic War”. This book of the collected articles, peer reviewed under the supervision of V.N. Belousov, Candidate of Biology, is prefaced with the addresses of K.V. Kolonchin, Director of the FSBSI “VNIRO”, and E.A. Kozhurin, Head in Charge of the Azov-Black Sea Branch of the FSBSI “VNIRO”. Through their congratulatory and commemorative speeches, they remind researchers and other fisheries personnel of the contribution made by their former fellows into the defense of their native country against Nazi aggressors.
The articles from this collection deal with the essential role played by fishers and fishing fleet in the Great Patriotic War. When agriculture failed to cope with the task of providing the USSR population with food, fish proved to be an indispensable source of nutrition. However, research institutes and their scientific and fishing fleets did much more than just supplied people with food. Fishing and research vessels participated in combat, — among other things, they made their input into the Soviet Kerch-Feodosia Landing Operation. Furthermore, AzCherNIRO and the Don-Kuban Fishery Research Station (the institutions, which were the predecessors of the current Azov-Black Sea Branch of the FSBSI “VNIRO”) continued to function in their scientific capacity.
While the main section of this book is dedicated to the general situation at the Azov-Kuban, Azov-Don and Crimean Fishery Basins, the chapter “Immortal Regiment” deals with specific names and faces. This chapter recounts the employees of the Don-Kuban Fishery Research Station and AzCherNIRO, who,  directly or indirectly, took part in the Great Patriotic War. Readers are presented with their biographical data and the means of their involvement into military operations.
The book is concluded with memoirs of AzNIIRKH employees, whose childhood fell upon the grievous wartime years. E. Z. Mazyar, T.D. Didenko,
G.S. Kornienko, and L.T. Gorbacheva tell the readers about the most dreadful period of their lives and recall their experience during those years: being uprooted from their homes, German occupation, bombardments, diseases, and famine.
Still, the book culminates on a positive note. In the most difficult of times, the best human qualities come into the forefront, and the past experience, no matter how tragic, could be used as an inspiration and a guidance during the peaceful present.
Citation: They expedited the Victory. Science and fisheries of Southern Russia during the Great Patriotic War. V.N. Belousov. (Ed.). Rostov-on-Don: AzNIIRKH Publ., Diapazon-Plyus [Diapason-Plus], 2020, 145 p.
Reference: https://oceandocs.org/handle/1834/ 17051