ГлавнаяENAquatic Bioresources & Environment. Volume 4, Number 4, 2021

Aquatic Bioresources & Environment. Volume 4, Number 4, 2021


Environmental Concerns and the State of Aquatic Environment

Application of GIS technology in the investigation of morphometric characteristics of the wintering pits in the Upper Reach of the Tsimlyansk Reservoir
A. I. Kochetkova, E. S. Bryzgalina

Abstract. The shallow waters of the Upper Reach are the most productive natural spawning grounds in the Tsimlyansk Reservoir. The hydrological regime of the Upper Reach is of a channel type, which results in a high flow rate and contributes to the formation of deep-water areas and shallow-water ones (riffles) along the channel. In turn, deep-water areas play a key role in the preservation of aquatic biological resources during the most unfavorable periods of the year. This work was aimed at the comprehensive morphological investigation of the wintering pits in   the Upper   Reach of   the Tsimlyansk   Reservoir in 2019,   as well as at the analysis of the materials collected in its course. This article presents the data collected during the bathymetric survey of the wintering pits in the Upper Reach of the Tsimlyansk Reservoir; using GIS, the morphometric characteristics of seven wintering pits have been calculated, and three-dimensional models of the bottom relief of these wintering pits have been created. During this investigation, three new wintering pits—Kalachevskaya, Lipo-Lebedenovskaya, and a pit in the vicinity of khutor Peskovatka—have been identified. A comprehensive analysis of the collected data indicates that the most pronounced in terms of the bottom topography wintering pits are Kalachevskaya, Golubinskaya, Nabatovskaya, and Peskovatskaya.
Keywords: Tsimlyansk Reservoir, bathymetric surveys, wintering pits, GIS mapping

Assessment of overgrowth of the Chelbas group of the Azov Sea Limans with aquatic vegetation
L. G. Bondarenko, S. N. Kulba, V. I. Petrashov, S. S. Smirnov, E. I. Matveeva, N. A. Rudakova

Abstract. The Chelbas Limans play crucial role in the reproduction of semi-anadromous fish species. The efficiency of their spawning is closely related to the overgrowth of spawning grounds, therefore, the study of aquatic vegetation in   the limans is essential   for fisheries. This study is aimed at   the investigation of the area and intensity of overgrowth of the Chelbas Limans with aquatic vegetation using remote sensing and GIS   technologies. The materials   on the dynamics of   overgrowth of   the Azov   Sea limans belonging to the Chelbas group are presented for the period 2016–2021. The assessment of the overgrowth of these water bodies was carried out using the Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI) and the radiometric Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), which were calculated from the multispectral images of the European Space Agency Sentinel-2 satellite. The data of satellite remote sensing have been compared with the data of botanical surveys and visual observations. The area of overgrowth with aquatic vegetation in the Kushchevaty Liman varied within the range from 15 to 93 %, in the Gorkiy Liman it ranged within 12–65 %, and in the Sladkiy Liman the overgrowth area did not exceed 1.7 %. A four-level classification of the overgrowth of the water bodies according to the NDVI is proposed: class 0 is from -1.0 to -0.1, class 1 is from -0.1 to 0.3, class 2 is from 0.3 to 0.5, and class 3 is from 0.5 to 1.0. Examination of the aquatic vegetation in the Chelbas Limans has shown the dependence of the area of overgrowth of these water bodies with macrophytes on the regime of freshwater and seawater influx to the limans.
Keywords: Azov Sea limans, aquatic vegetation, macrophytes, reed, Sentinel-2 satellite, GIS technologies

Biology and Ecology of Aquatic Organisms

Amphipods of the marine farms in Sevastopol coastal waters (Black Sea)
V. А. Grintsov, S. V. Shchurov

Abstract. Amphipods are one of the main taxa of   invertebrates   inhabiting   the   structures   of   marine farms. On the collectors of oyster and mussel farms in the Black Sea, their density reaches more than 200,000 ind.·m2 of the projected surface of the substrate. Amphipods, being a valuable food source for a number of fish and invertebrate species, as well as a consumer of organic matter [1], can increase the productivity of the Black Sea coastal waters. This work is aimed at the evaluation of the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of amphipods, as well as their biodiversity on the collectors of marine farms. To assess the species composition, biodiversity, and density of amphipods, standard methods have been used; the density was calculated per m2 of the projected surface of the substrate, based on the geometry of the marine farm components. 17 species of amphipods have been identified on the marine farm components, the most abundant of them being   Jassa marmorata Holmes, 1905, Stenothoe monoculoides (Montagu, 1813), and Microdeutopus gryllotalpa Costa, 1853. The total density of amphipods in one sample on the farm structures reached 211,919 ind.·m2 of the projected surface of the substrate. The components of marine farms can facilitate the increase in the biodiversity and improve the quantitative characteristics of amphipods, which would result in the growth of the productivity rates of the Black Sea coastal waters.
Keywords: marine farms, amphipods, biodiversity, Black Sea

New data on finding of alien prawn Macrobrachium nipponense (Decapoda, Palaemonidae) in the Don River (Azov Sea Basin)
L. A. Zhivoglyadova, N. A. Nebesikhina, N. S. Elfimova, D. F. Afanasyev

Abstract. For the first time, a freshwater prawn of the genus Macrobrachium Spence Bate, 1868, earlier unknown for the basin of the Azov Sea, was recorded in the lower reaches of the Don River in September, 2019. Based on their morphological characteristics, the found specimens were identified as M. nipponense (De Haan, 1849). This work presents the results of genetic analysis confirming the species status of the prawn, and also reports on new discovery and spreading of this species in the Don River. Oriental river prawn M. nipponense is a subtropical species, in its natural range widespread in Southeast Asia. Since the middle of the 1960s, this species is rapidly expanding its range in Eurasia. In a temperate climatic zone within the area of the former USSR, this thermophilic species was introduced in cooling ponds of thermal power plants (TPP). Acclimatization of M. nipponense was carried out as a part of warm-water aquaculture in order to improve the food supply of fish and enrich the fauna of TPP cooling ponds. This paper summarizes the available information about the formation of stable populations of M. nipponense within the area of the former USSR countries, as well as an assessment of the risks of invasion in the Don River.
Keywords: Crustacea, freshwater prawn, alien species, warm-water aquaculture

Ichthyofauna of Marine and Inland Water Bodies

Ichthyoplankton of the Russian territorial waters and exclusive economic zone in the Black Sea
V. P. Nadolinskiy, V. V. Patyuk, A. D. Efanov
Abstract. Survival rate of a generation at the embryonic and larval stages of the life cycle plays a crucial role in the formation of fish stocks. The data on the distribution of the fish individuals at the early stages of their development allow for the mitigation of anthropogenic negative impact on the stocks of aquatic living resources. This study has been aimed at the investigation of the species composition and abundance of thermophilic and psychrophilic fish species at the early stages of their development in the Russian territorial waters and exclusive economic zone in the Black Sea, as well as the assessment of their status in these areas. Sampling was conducted using a cone-shaped ichthyoplankton net with 80 cm diameter opening (IKS-80), off the board of the vessel going through the circling motion at 3 knot speed for 10 minutes. In the summer season, the major share of the individuals caught at their embryonic stages of development is comprised by the European anchovy, red mullet, Atlantic horse mackerel, and annular seabream eggs. Among early juveniles, the larvae of gobies, blennies, and pipefishes prevail. It has been found out that the highest diversity of the fish species at their early stages of development is recorded in the summer season: 58 species in the territorial waters, and 14 species in the exclusive economic zone. Winter ichthyoplankton is not very diverse—only 4 species have been recorded. In the territorial waters, littoral fish species at their early stages of development prevail. Ichthyoplankton catches in the exclusive economic zone are mostly comprised by pelagic zooplanktivorous and pelagic carnivorous species. In the winter ichthyoplankton catches, both in the territorial waters and in the exclusive economic zone, eggs and early juveniles of 4 fish species are recorded: European sprat (eggs and larvae), whiting (eggs and larvae), shore rockling (larvae), and sand lance (larvae). Low species diversity of the ichthyoplankton during the winter season results from the low number of winter-spawning species.
Keywords: Black Sea, ichthyoplankton, eggs, larvae, territorial waters, exclusive economic zone, winter- spawning and summer-spawning fish species

Aquaculture and Methods of Artificial Reproduction

Parasite fauna of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758) juveniles in the growing ponds of the Azov and Black Sea Fishery Basin
V. N. Khorosheltseva, T. V. Strizhakova, A. A. Kerimova, T. V. Denisova

Abstract. Fish farms located in the Azov and Black Sea Basin contribute greatly to the development of the fisheries and aquaculture in the Russian Federation. Here, the main cultivation targets are carp species, especially common carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758). This work is aimed at the updating of the data on the current composition of the parasite fauna of the common carp from the rearing ponds of the Azov and Black Sea Fishery Basin. At the early stages   of   post-embryonic development,   carp juveniles are exposed to parasite infestation both with a direct life cycle (before their transition to exogenous feeding) and with a complex life cycle (upon feeding on zooplankton organisms and benthos). At the investigated fish farms, the range of parasites in the carp juveniles covered 16 species from 5 classes: Peritricha (Trichodina sp. Ehrenberg, 1830), Monogenea (Dactylogyrus extensus Mueller et Van Cleave, 1932, Dactylogyrus sp. Mueller   et Van Cleave,   1932, Gyrodactylus sp. Mueller   et Van Cleave, 1932), Trematoda (Diplostomum sp. met. Nordmann, 1832, Posthodiplostomum cuticola met. Nordmann, 1832, Tylodelphys clavata met. Nordmann, 1832), Nematoda (Nematoda sp. l. Rudolphi, 1808, Spiroxys contortus l. Rudolphi, 1819), Cestoda (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934, B. opsariichthydis Yamaguti,   1934,   Khawia sinensis Hsü, 1935, Neogryporhynchus cheilancristrotus Wedl, 1855, Paradilepis scolecina Rudolphi, 1819) and Crustacea (Lernaea elegans Leigh-Sharpe, 1925, Ergasilus sieboldi Nordmann, 1832). A considerable share (31.25 %) of the total number of parasites detected was comprised of the representatives of Cestoda class, found in four farms out of five investigated. Infestation rates for most parasite species were low, except for the Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi.
Keywords: carp, fish parasites, parasite fauna, infestation, aquaculture, fish diseases

Fisheries and Processing of Aquatic Bioresources

Results of the comparative analysis of fishing conditions for the Azov Sea anchovy in September–November, 2019 and 2020
B. N. Panov, S. S. Smirnov, E. O. Spiridonova, S. A. Negoda, K. T. Trusova
Abstract. The data on the stock and abundance of the European anchovy, its age, length, and weight characteristics, and the information on its distribution in the sea before the start of its fishing season have been considered. Abiotic environmental conditions of anchovy autumn migration   have   been   monitored using daily indicators of atmospheric transfers in the area, as well as temperature and sea surface level (altimetry) at various locations of the Kerch pre-strait zones of the Azov and Black Seas from September 20 to November 20. In October 2020, the Azov Sea anchovy was in a better physiological state than in 2019, even though its stock remained virtually the same. Its fishing in the Black Sea in 2019 started early, lasted long, and was low-efficient; in 2020, on the contrary, it was late, short, and productive. Favorable conditions for the start of anchovy fishing in the Azov Sea were created by the northwestern atmospheric transfers and southeastern surface currents in the pre-strait zone of the Azov Sea, and the northern atmospheric transfers and southern surface currents in the Kerch Strait were more favorable for the anchovy migration to the Black Sea. Anchovy fishing in the Azov Sea started at the sea surface temperature 17.0–17.5 °C, and its large-scale fishing in the Black Sea started at 16 °C. In the Kerch pre-strait zone of the Black Sea, the predominance of eastern geostrophic currents facilitates the migration of the Azov Sea anchovy to the Caucasian coast. The strengthening of these currents facilitates the anchovy migration and reduces the effectiveness of its fishing, and their weakening exerts an adverse impact on its migration but increases the effectiveness of its fishing.
Keywords: European anchovy, Azov Sea stock, fleet fishing, fishing conditions, abiotic factors, integrated monitoring, forecasting, fishing management

Informational Messages

On the announcement of the III International Scientific and Practical Conference “Biological Diversity: Study, Conservation, Restoration, Rational Use”, held on September 13–18, 2022 (Kerch State Maritime Technological University, Kerch, Russia)

Brief guidelines for the authors