Volume 2, Number 2


Год / Year


Review Articles

Review Articles
Climatic conditions and hydrological regime of the Sea  of Azov in the XX – early XXI centuries.
 Berdnikov S.V., Dashkevich L.V., Kulygin V.V.
Abstract. The paper is devoted to consideration of the main climatic conditions dynamics that formed the hydrological regime of the Sea of Azov in the 20th – early 21st centuries. In the Azov coastal region from the mid to end of the 20th century, the trend of reduced wind activity persists, both for average annual and seasonal values. As a result of climate changes, average annual precipitation increased to compare with the first half of the last century. The peak of annual precipitation growth was in 2010, after which a slight decrease is observed. The highest trend of air temperature increase was observed in the region of the Sea of Azov at the beginning of the 21st century (up to 0.08 °C/year). At the same time, for the 100-year period, the increase in average annual air temperatures was about 1 °C for Kerch and Genichesk, and about 2 °C for Taganrog, Yeisk and Primorsko- Akhtarsk. The most part of this increase was due to the growth of average winter and spring temperatures, the least — by the growth of autumn ones. It should be noted that, since 2010, there has been a decrease in temperature growth rate in the Sea of Azov region. The growth of annual water temperatures near the coast of the Sea of Azov is about 1 °С for 100 years. The average ice cover of the Sea of Azov reduced almost by half: from 30 % in the 1980s down to 16 % at the beginning of the 21st century. In the century-long series of observations of the Sea of Azov salinity, there is a clear rotation of desalination and salinization periods. Since 2007, the sea is in yet another period of salinization, more pronounced than the salinization of the 1970s, which was considered disastrous. Modern salinization is associated with a decrease in precipitation in the region and an increase in anthropogenic withdrawal of river flow. The current state of the Sea of Azov (a significant positive temperature and salinity anomaly) has never been recorded previously in the history of its studies. An increase in the standard deviation of the average annual series, both for water temperature and salinity, may indicate an increase in the variability of these characteristics in the modern period.

Keywords: Sea of Azov, climate change, water temperature, water salinity.

Environmental Concerns and the State of the Aquatic Environment

Bioindication of the current state of the Kondopoga Bay of Lake Onego in the areas, affected by trout farms, through the use of zooplankton parameters.

Fomina Yu.Yu., Kalinkina N.M., Tekanova T.V.
Abstract. Lake Onego is one of the biggest European water bodies and a strategic source of drinking water of high quality. In recent decades, trout farming has been intensively developing in the lake. Аt present, 11 trout farms are located in the Kondopoga Bay of Lake Onego. The modern state of the Kondopoga Bay ecosystem in the areas, affected by the trout farms, was assessed through the use of zooplankton indicators based on the observations, carried out in July 2017. The obtained data were compared with the average long-term indicators of the zooplankton community in the central part of the Kondopoga Bay at the beginning of July, 1988–1998. In the areas, affected by trout farms, 31 taxons of zooplankton were found with a rank up to the genus and lower (Calanoida — 3; Cyclopoida — 4;  Cladocera — 13; Rotatoria — 11). The species composition  of zooplankton is represented by the species, common for the lake of Karelia. In the community species composition, the species, serving as the indicators of eutrophication, are noted. Significant differences were found out between the areas, affected by trout farms, and the central part of the bay. The areas, affected by trout farms, were characterized by low values of the Shannon-Weaver indices, higher proportion of the genus Asplanchna representatives, and higher biomass values of rotifera. Revealed changes indicate an increase in trophicity of these areas.
Keywords: Lake Onego, zooplankton, eutrophication, dominant complex, community structure, species diversity, trout farms.

Biology and Ecology of Aquatic Organisms

Development of the scyphozoan jellyfish Rhizostoma pulmo and Aurelia aurita populations in the Azov Sea.
Mirzoyan Z.A., Martynyuk M.L., Khrenkin D.V., Afanasyev D.F.
Abstract. Scyphozoan jellyfishes Rhizostoma pulmo and Aurelia aurita make up the body of typical gelatinous macroplankton of the Black Sea, which can develop in the Azov Sea when several factors are combined: high salinity, increased water temperature, sufficient food supply, and low food competition. In the 1970s, all these factors were present, and jellyfish abundance grew rapidly. They claimed almost all area of the water body, including the Taganrog Bay, in massive quantities. The highest abundance of jellyfish (7.0 billion individuals) was observed in 1978, and the highest biomass was recorded in 1976. In the context of current salinization of the Azov Sea, relatively active development of the scyphozoan jellyfishes coincides with fierce food competition with ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi. In conditions of favorable salinity and optimal temperature regime but extremely low food supply, the jellyfish found itself under restrictions of very poor food availability, which  led to less active growth in abundance when compared with the previous years of salinization of the sea. In 2018, its abundance made up only 0.01 billion individuals, and its biomass equaled the level of 0.014 million tons, which is by two orders of magnitude lower than during jellyfish expansion in the Azov Sea in the 1970s. The results of expedition studies, conducted in order to assess the status of scyphozoan populations of Rhizostoma pulmo and Aurelia aurita in the Azov Sea in the summer and autumn of 2018, have been analyzed. The data on these species abundance, biomass, size composition, distribution and some aspects of their populations development are presented for the period of 1969–1976, when the Azov Sea experienced salinization, and for the current period with the present sea salinity level.
Keywords: Rhizostoma pulmoAurelia aurita, Azov Sea, jellyfish, macroplankton, scyphozoans, abundance, biomass, zooplankton, geographical distribution, salinity.

New data on biology and ecology of Flexopecten glaber (Linnaeus, 1758) (Bivalvia, Pectinidae) in the Black Sea.
Bondarev I.P.
Abstract. Smooth scallop Flexopecten glaber (Linnaeus, 1758) is a promising target for fishing and mariculture. Biology and ecology of F. glaber have not been sufficiently studied, and the research undertaken is aimed at filling the lack of information about the object. The local population of smooth scallop, inhabiting the depths of 1–6 m in the Kazachya Bay (western part of the Heracleian Peninsula, Crimea), was studied using equipment for snorkeling. The main features of the biotope and biocenosis of F. glaber settlement are considered. In the investigated area, F. glaber dwells among the thickets of dwarf eelgrass Zostera noltei on a sandy shell bottom. Scallop density varied from less than 1 to 3 ind./m2, reaching 10 ind./ m2 in the core of the settlement. For the study, 150 scallop individuals were sampled; and based on their analysis, size, weight, and age composition of the population are given for F. glaber for the first time. The maximum size of an individual makes up 56.2 mm, maximum weight is 23 g, and maximum age is 7 years, with average life expectancy of 4 years. The conclusion was made that the studied local population of
F. glaber is in a good state, and the prognosis for recovery of this species in the Black Sea is favorable. The need for continued implementation of conservation measures for the species is indicated.
Keywords: Flexopecten glaber, Kazachya Bay, Black Sea, biology, population structure, ecology.

Bacterioplankton of the north-western stretch of Lake Munozero (the Republic of Karelia).
Semik A.M., Saenko E.M., Zamyatina E.A.
Abstract. The survey results on the status of aquatic crustaceans of the genus Artemia Leach, 1819 in the eastern Sivash Bay (the Azov Sea) in 2017–2018 are presented. The features and range of changes of the salinity level in the bay during the investigated period are considered. The dynamics for the abundance (ind./m3) and biomass (mg/m3) of the brine shrimp by seasons (spring, summer and autumn) is presented. The structure of the artemia population in the time aspect and under different water salinity regimes observed in the eastern side of the Sivash Bay has been considered. The brine shrimp density in the bay has also been studied and a scheme of their spatial distribution is presented by 2018 seasons. The research results revealed that the increase in the water salinity in the eastern Sivash Bay promoted the development of the branchiopods, abundance growth and gain in weight of both adult organisms and cysts. The wind-induced processes typical of Sivash contributed to the spread of Artemia crustaceans from temporarily flooded areas throughout the eastern part of the bay. In the case that the current trend of the salinity fluctuations is preserved, an increase in the productivity of artemia population should be expected, as well as in commercial significance of saline areas of the Sivash Bay.
Keywords: eastern part of Sivash Bay, Artemia, abundance, biomass, salinity, nauplial stages, juveniles, pre-adult stages, females, males, cysts, ovisacs.

Current status of the brine shrimp population Artemia Leach, 1819 in the eastern Sivash Bay 
Makarova Е.М.
During the growing season of 2018, planktonic microbocenosis of the north-western stretch of Lake Munozero (the Republic of Karelia) was studied. The total abundance, biomass, production, doubling time, as well as the number of heterotrophic bacteria were determined. The bacterial total abundance ranged from 0.6 to
1.2 mn cells ml-1  and biomass ranged from 0.12 to 0.355 g/m3. Average cell volumes of the bacteria ranged between 0.18 and 0.33 μm3. The maximum values of the total abundance and average volume of bacterioplankton cells were observed in spring, and the biomass reached the maximum values in autumn. Bacterial production varied between 0.01 and 0.33 mn cells ml-1. Specific growth rates (day-1) ranged around 0.01–0.45 day-1, giving doubling times of 37–1872 h. Vertical distribution of parameters of the heterotrophic bacterioplankton in the studied part of the lake was irregular and depended on stratification. During the research period, the abundance of saprophytic bacteria in the water was in the range of 14–294 CFU/ml, and the abundance of oligotrophic bacteria ranged from 150 to 1450 CFU/ml. The north-western stretch of Lake Munozero can be characterized as transitional from oligotrophic to mesotrophic.
Keywords: Munozero, bacterioplankton, water quality assessment, total abundance, biomass, bacterial production, vertical distribution, seasonal dynamics.

Comparative evaluation of the effect of  toxic exposure to modern herbicides on early ontogenesis of fish.
Zinchuk O.A., Baimova I.B., Stroeva E.S.
Abstract. Among the herbicides of the new generation, a rapid expansion of new mixed compounds with several active ingredients is observed; they are characterized by small consumption rates, their decay during one growing season and the absence of toxic residues in the environment after the decay. In this regard, the study was aimed to evaluate the combined effect of the active ingredients of the mixed herbicide Checker Grandwater-dispersible granules (WDG), and non-mixed pesticide Alionsuspension concentrate (SC), to determine the nature and extent of their toxic effects on hydrobionts. The toxic effect of these pesticides on the embryos and fry of round goby (Neogobius melanostomus), as well on sturgeon (Acipenser guildenstaedti) prelarvae was assessed. The following parameters were evaluated: toxicometric parameters, duration of incubation period, survival rate, stage passing rate, hatching dynamics, pathomorphology, morphometric parameters (body length and weight), and mutagenesis. The study of the toxic effects of the pesticides was performed in laboratory conditions. The targets of the research were preparative forms and active ingredients of the pesticides. Eggs and fry of round goby and eggs and prelarvae of sturgeon were used as test subjects. The research results showed that these herbicides can have a toxic effect on the early ontogenesis of gobies. The herbicide AlionSC belongs to acutely toxic pesticides, whereas Checker GrandWDG is a moderately toxic one. The latter is a more promising herbicide recommended for use in agriculture.
Keywords: herbicides, embryos, toxicity, survival, teratogenicity.

Fisheries and Processing of Aquatic Bioresources

Production of zebra mussel  enzymatic  hydrolyzate on an experimental production line.
Chernyavskaya S.L., Esina L.M., Krivonos O.N., Gorbenko L.A.
Abstract. Heavy stocks of zebra mussel in the reservoirs of the Russian Federation, as well as the lack of implemented technologies, determine the relevance of complex processing of this mollusk species. Zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771), caught in the Veselovsky Reservoir (the Rostov Region) in January 2018, was used as the research object. Enzymatic hydrolysis was performed using enzyme neutral bacterial protease protozyme (protease B). The composition of the experimental production line for processing mussels, which was designed by Borisov L.A. and Gubanova A.G., was considered. The possibility of zebra mussel processing on
the pilot line with the production of enzymatic hydrolyzate with protein content of 25.3 %, solids — 50.2, carbohydrates — 31.1, fat — 0.4, and ash 5.5 % was shown. Equipment that needs constructive changes is indicated. The obtained enzymatic hydrolyzate is thick dark brown liquid with a specific taste of zebra mussel and slight bitterness, and a smell of dried mushrooms. In the hydrolyzate with the addition of citric acid, the
presence of  a  sour  taste was detected,  whereas a  sour-sweet taste was  characteristic for  the hydrolyzate with
rosehip syrup. It is noted that the sour and sour-sweet flavors, obtained by adding citric acid and rosehip syrup, were not in harmony with the natural taste of zebra mussel. The use of malt allowed for improvement of the color and taste of the hydrolyzate.
Keywords: hydrolyzate, protozyme, malt, fermenter, perforated basket, vacuum evaporator

Formation of fish stocks and prospects of fishery development  in  the Varnavinsky Reservoir. 
Karnaukhov G.I., Kashirin A.V.  
Data on current composition of the ichthyofauna in the Varnavinsky Reservoir and its hydrochemical regime are provided. The structure of commercial fish stocks has been assessed. Formation of the ichthyofauna in the reservoir has been completed. Initially, the fishing community was formed from river aboriginal fish that were unable to create significant commercial stocks. The assessment of the state of the food resources in the reservoir is given. Research in the Varnavinsky Reservoir has been carried out in the spring-autumn period since 2008. Hydrobiological, ichthyological, and hydrochemical samples were collected at four stations. The main trend of the reservoir utilization for fisheries or aquaculture purposes is defined. The increase in the commercial stocks can be achieved through the measures targeted at the formation of its ichthyofauna and by means of rational management of the ecosystem in the Varnavinsky Reservoir. The optimal volumes of the annual stocking of this water body with juveniles of silver carp are suggested. The introduction of the Far Eastern fish species will provide more efficient use of food resources of the reservoir and will further ensure the growth of ichthyomass during the growing season. Stocking the reservoir with the Far Eastern fish species will not only lead to a change in the fishing structure of the ichthyofauna, but will also significantly increase the fishing productivity.
Keywords: Varnavinsky Reservoir, ichthyofauna composition, food supply, stock assessment, stocking, juveniles, fish productivit.

Informational Messages

Leading specialist of fish processing industry, scientist  and lecturer Vinnov Aleksey Sergeevich.

Chernyavskaya S.L., Esina L.M.
Abstract. Aleksey Sergeevich Vinnov (25.05.1958 – 04.06.2019) was a Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), an Associate Professor, a talented lecturer, a rector of the Kerch Maritime Technological Institute (KMTI) in 2000– 2005, a Senior Researcher in the FSBSI “Southern Scientific Research Institute of Marine Fisheries and Oceanography” (YugNIRO), and a Deputy Head for Operation and Quality of the Limited Liability Company under the Laws of Russian Federation “Aquamarine”. A.S. Vinnov made a great contribution into the development of education and science in the field of fisheries. Aleksey Sergeevich began his professional life as a Junior Researcher in the Astrakhan Technical Institute of Fishing Industry and Economy and defended his Candidate's Thesis in 1988. He dedicated the major part of his working career to the Kerch State Maritime Technological University, where he had been employed for 21 years, taking positions from a senior lecturer of the Department of Fish Processing Technology, an Associate Professor, the Dean of the Technological Faculty,  the vice-rector for academic affairs, to the rector of the University. A.S. Vinnov was known for his rational thinking and professional integrity; he was diplomatic and considerate, and proved to be a competent leader. Vinnov's research works were dedicated to the issues of development of production technology for canned fish and fish protein mass, of kinetics of enzymatic hydrolysis, and many other subjects. A.S. Vinnov was honored with several badges of distinction due to his high professional expertise and personal contribution to the development of fisheries field, particularly education.
Keywords: Vinnov Aleksey Sergeevich, honored worker of fisheries, rector, KSMTU, fishing, fish processing technology, kinetics of enzymatic hydrolysis

Book Abstract 
“Practice guidelines for chemical analysis of the components of aquatic ecosystems.  Priority toxicants in water, bottom sediments, and hydrobionts”

This publication has been developed by the scientists of the FSBSI “AzNIIRKH” (since 16.01.2019, the Azov-Black Sea Branch of the FSBSI “VNIRO” (“AzNIIRKH”)) and edited by the member of the Editorial Board of the scientific peer-reviewed journal “Aquatic Resources & Environment”, Head of the Analytical Test Center, Candidate of Sciences (Biology), Timophey Barabashin. The draft authors are L.F.  Pavlenko,  L.I.  Korotkova,  I.V.  Korablina, N.I.  Katalevskiy,  G.V.  Skrypnik,  Zh.V. Gevorkyan, T.L. Klimenko, N.S. Anokhina, A.A. Larin, V.S. Ekilik, and I.A. Zubtsova. These Practice Guidelines present metrologically certified methods of analysis of the components of aquatic ecosystems, which include aquatic environment, bottom sediments and aquatic organisms (benthos, organs and tissues of commercial fish), for content of priority pollutants: heavy metals and arsenic, components of oil pollution (hydrocarbons and gum substances), paraffin and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, anionic and nonionic surfactants, and phenols. All these methods are included in the State Register of Methods of Quantitative Chemical Analysis and Assessment of Environmental Objects, Approved for State Environmental Control. The Guidelines are meant for laboratory scientists, who perform analysis of the components of ecosystems of natural (freshwater and marine) water bodies, as well as analysis of drinking water and treated sewage effluents. The book contains: 82 Tables and 13 Figures; its References comprise 106 sources.
Citation: Practice guidelines for chemical analysis of the components of aquatic ecosystems. Priority toxicants in water, bottom sediments, and hydrobionts. Т.О. Barabashin. (Ed.). Rostov-on-Don: Mini Taip, 2018. 436 p. ISBN 978-5-98615-333-9.
Reference: http://azniirkh.ru/novosti/prakticheskoe-rukovodstvo-po-himicheskomu-analizu-elementov-vodnyih-ekosistem/

Book Abstract 
“Algal indication  of water  bodies  in Ukraine: methods and prospects”

The book was published, one of the authors of which is a member of the Editorial Board of the scientific peer- reviewed journal “Aquatic Bioresources & Environment”, Professor, the Head of the Laboratory of Biodiversity and Ecology of Algae (Institute of Evolution, University of Haifa (Israel)) Sofia Barinova, in collaboration with the scientists from Ukraine E.P. Belous and P.M. Tsarenko. The first part of the book presents data on the water bodies of Ukraine and the history of the study of algae in them. The basic methods of studying and classification of water bodies are given. The main approaches to the bioindication of aquatic ecosystems using algae as an indicator are considered. Descriptions of the major bioindicator systems are presented. The examples of the use of bioindication for various types of water bodies in Ukraine are shown. Systemic ideas about the diversity of algae are addressed. Methods of environmental and floristic analysis have been optimized. The influence of environmental factors on algae biodiversity is shown. The application of some statistical methods and programs for the analysis of the mutual influence of the environment and algal communities in the water bodies is demonstrated. The possibility of assessing the state of the aquatic ecosystem by comparing the estimates for the environment and for the biotic component is also shown. Original indices and a system of environmental mapping on a catchment basin basis are represented. New approaches and examples are given for the ecological mapping of the data on the biodiversity of algae and environmental parameters in the water surface of lake- type water bodies. The possibility of assessing the influence of climatic parameters on the composition and abundance of algal communities in continental water bodies of various types has been established. The second part of the book is a database of ecological preferences of algal indicators of Ukraine;  it has been developed on the basis of the information collected in four volumes of “Algae of Ukraine …” and the World Database of Freshwater Algae-Indicators, developed at the Institute of Evolution, University of Haifa. Algae-indicators of Ukraine, listed in the Appendix, are represented by 3,300 taxa; the main literature sources, where the data on the ecological preferences of individual taxa were taken from and summarized, are also included there. The book is aimed at scientists, who apply the methods of bioindication in their study of environmental quality of the water bodies, to ecologists, to monitoring organizations, and to a wide range of professionals and students. 
The book contains: 107 Figures, 68 Tables, and 975 References. 
Citation: Barinova S.S., Bilous O.P., Tsarenko P.M. Algal indication of water bodies in Ukraine: methods and prospects. Haifa, Kiev: University of Haifa Publ., 2019, 367 p.
Reference: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/332441691_Algoindikacia_ vodnyh_ obektov_Ukrainy_metody_i_perspektivy/download

Publication Abstract ”Methodological recommendations on stock assessment and forecasting of recommended catch  (yield) of Artemia"
These Methodological Recommendations are developed by the FSBSI “Russian Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography” (FSBSI “VNIRO”), including the Azov-Black Sea Branch of the FSBSI “VNIRO” (“AzNIIRKH”), theAltay Branch of the FSBSI “VNIRO” (“AltayNIRO”), and the Tyumen Branch of the FSBSI “VNIRO” (the State Scientific-and-Production Center of Fishery, or “Gosrybcenter”) by a teamof authors (the draft  authors  are   L.I.  Litvinenko,  V.A. Bizikov,
N.P.   Kovacheva,  E.M.   Saenko,  L.V.  Vesnina,
K.V. Kutsanov, A.M. Semik, and A.V. Parshin-Chudin).
The Recommendations are aimed at the scientific research institutions working in this field that conduct monitoring and assessment of the stocks of aquatic biological resources and are authorized by the Federal Agency for Fishery to develop a forecast of their catch.
Citation: Methodological recommendations on stock assessment and forecasting of recommended catch (yield) of Artemia. Мoscow: VNIRO Publ.,  2019, 50 p. ISBN: 978-85382-480-5.
Reference: http://www.vniro.ru/ru/rybolovstvo/metodicheskie-rekomendatsii-po-otsenke-zapasa- i-prognozirovaniyu-rekomendovannogo-ob-ema- dobychi-vylova-artemii